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Oceanography

From the depths of the Mid-Atlantic's submarine canyons to its sandy beaches, explore the physical and chemical properties of the ocean through our Oceanography theme, now under development.

Fronts Probability

Fronts play an important role in upper ocean processes. Fronts can impact ocean fisheries, for example, by influencing the spatial distribution of biological productivity and by controlling the accumulation of marine debris, which serves as a beacon to higher trophic levels. The NOAA CoastWatch Oceanic Front Probability Index measures the probability of sea surface temperature front formation based on data from NOAA's GOES satellites. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean fronts and were generated using fronts probability data available from CoastWatch. The data were processed to monthy rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- December, January, February; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

The Oceanic Front Probability Index is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation. The source dataset by NOAA CoastWatch is based on sea surface temperature (SST) data; daily SST averages were calculated, then an edge detection algorithm was applied to identify fronts. The index for front probability was then calculated using the number of times a pixel is counted as a front divided by cloud free days for the time period. This helps to eliminate days in which the fronts are masked out by clouds. NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. NOT to be used for navigation.

Fronts 2010 Spring / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2010 Summer / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2010 Fall / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2011 Winter / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2011 Spring / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2011 Summer / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2011 Fall / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2012 Winter / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2012 Spring / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2012 Summer / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2013 Winter / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2013 Spring / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2013 Summer / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2013 Fall / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2014 Winter / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2014 Spring / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2014 Summer / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2014 Fall / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2015 Winter / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2015 Spring / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2016 Winter / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2016 Spring / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2016 Fall / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2017 Winter / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2017 Spring / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2017 Summer / Fronts Probability

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Fronts 2017 Fall / Fronts Probability

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NE Canyons & Seamounts

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Net Primary Productivity

In the surface ocean, net primary productivity (NPP) is the amount of organic carbon generated by photosynthesis in planktonic organisms minus the amount of organic carbon used by these organisms in respiration. Primary producers form the base of the food chain and generate the biomass that sustains all life in the ocean. NOAA CoastWatch provides a measurement of primary productivity based on a number of satellite measurements. These data represent seasonal 'max' values of ocean NPP generated utilizing data available from NOAA CoastWatch. Data were processed to monthly rasters, then computed into composites representing seasonal maximum values. The seasons are as follows: Winter- December, January, February; Spring- March, April, May; Summer- June, July, August. Fall- September, October, November.

Source: NOAA CoastWatch, NOAA NOS, NOAA NWS Monterey Regional Forecast Office; seasonal composites, Rutgers University

Notes:

NOAA CoastWatch Primary Productivity is an EXPERIMENTAL dataset, distributed for scientific evaluation NOAA CoastWatch accepts no liability for use of these data products. It is recommended that these products NOT be used for navigation. The source dataset utilized satellite measurements of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), chlorophyll-a concentration, and sea surface temperature (SST). The method used to calculate the dataset follows the primary productivity model developed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997. This model uses these three variables to visualize the rate of primary productivity by determining how well light penetrates the water column. When there is a higher density of primary producers in the water column, the light penetration will decrease and vice versa.

NPP 2010 Winter / Net Primary Productivity

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NPP 2010 Spring / Net Primary Productivity

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NPP 2011 Winter / Net Primary Productivity

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NPP 2019 Winter / Net Primary Productivity

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NPP 2019 Spring / Net Primary Productivity

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Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2010 Winter / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2010 Spring / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2010 Summer / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2010 Fall / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2011 Winter / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2011 Spring / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2012 Winter / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2013 Winter / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2014 Winter / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2014 Spring / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2014 Fall / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2015 Winter / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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SST Anomaly 2015 Spring / Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly

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Bathymetry

This shows regional bathymetry data as well as high resolution bathymetry data, where it exists, from multiple sources. Included here are regional data compiled from the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC) and U.S. Coastal Relief Model, submarine canyon and shelf/slope break bathymetry from NOAA's Okeanos Explorer missions, and nearshore high resolution bathymetry compiled by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information. See individual layer descriptions in the Data Catalog for more information.

Source: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC)

Notes:

These data not to be used for navigation. Although these data are of high quality and useful for planning and modeling purposes, they are not suitable for navigation.

Regional Bathymetry / Bathymetry

This raster dataset represents region-wide bathymetry data that covers the entire Mid-Atlantic region out to the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). It was compiled by The Nature Conservancy primarily from NOAA's Coastal Relief Model and Atlantic margin bathymetry data compiled by the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center, University of New Hampshire. The raster cell size is approximately 100 meters.

Source: NOAA, CCOM/JHC

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Not to be used for navigation.

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Okeanos Explorer Bathymetry / Bathymetry

The data displayed here is a compilation of data collected during the Atlantic Canyons Mapping cruises. The multibeam products are generated by the Okeanos Explorer's Mapping Data Team at the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping Joint Hydrographic Center at the University of New Hampshire after each mission. For each cruise, additional data are available by visiting the Atlantic Canyons Mapping Data Viewer.

Source: NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

Notes:

These data not to be used for navigation. Although these data are of high quality and useful for planning and modeling purposes, they are not suitable for navigation.

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NCEI Topographic and Bathymetric Mosaic / Bathymetry

This service is a general-purpose global, seamless bathymetry/topography mosaic. It combines DEMs from a variety of near sea-level vertical datums, such as mean high water (MHW), mean sea level (MSL), and North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). No conversion/harmonization of vertical datums was performed. Because the mosaic contains "overviews" for performance, individual DEMs cannot be separated from the others. Individual DEMs, or smaller subsets, are available in the companion DEM Mosaic (Individual DEMs) image service.

By default, the DEMs are drawn in order of cell size, with higher-resolution grids displayed on top of lower-resolution grids. If overlapping DEMs have the same resolution, the newer one is shown.

Source: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)

Notes:

WARNING: These data not to be used for navigation. Although these data are of high quality and useful for planning and modeling purposes, they are not suitable for navigation.

For more information:NOAA GeoPlatform: Digital Elevation Models Global Mosaic (Color Shaded Relief)

NOAA NOS Hydrographic Survey Data / Bathymetry

This data displays detailed color shaded relief visualizations of high-resolution quality-controlled seafloor elevation from NOAA / National Ocean Service (NOS) Hydrographic Survey Bathymetric Attributed Grids (BAGs) in U.S. coastal waters. Many near-shore areas have been mapped at high resolution (often 1 meter or better). The depths are usually relative to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) datum. BAG files are gridded, multi-dimensional bathymetric data files and is the standard NOS hydrographic data file for public release.

Source: NOAA National Geophysical Data Center

Notes:

These data not to be used for navigation. Although these data are of high quality and useful for planning and modeling purposes, they are not suitable for navigation. For official navigation products, please refer to the U.S. nautical charts available from the NOAA Office of Coast Survey.

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Bathymetric Contours / Bathymetry

This layer contains bathymetric contours which provide the size, shape and distribution of underwater features. The DEM utilized was the Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis which is a multi-resolution gridded global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) that includes cleaned processed ship-based multibeam sonar data at their full spatial resolution (~100m in the deep sea). The contours are depicted from zero to -100 meters (m) with a contour every 10 meters, a -101m to -500m with contours every 25 meters, and -501m+ with contours every 100m.

Source: NOAA Office of Coastal Management; services by MarineCadastre.gov

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To support coastal and ocean planning and other activities pursuant to the Energy Policy Act, Coastal Zone Management Act, Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, National Environmental Policy Act, Rivers and Harbors Act and the Submerged Lands Act. This feature class represents contours of elevation under the water's surface known as Bathymetry Contours. This feature class contains contours from zero to -100m with a contour every 10 meters, a -101m to -500m with contours every 25 meters, and -501m+ with contours every 100m until all contours had been created for the utilized DEM.

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NCEI Multibeam Archive / Bathymetry

Bathymetry is the measurement of the depth of the ocean floor, data that can be used for a variety of purposes such as: nautical charting, oceanographic research and modeling, habitat classification, maritime commerce, and recreational applications. The Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) at NCEI collects and archives multibeam data from the earliest commercial installations (circa 1980) through today's modern high-resolution collections. Data are acquired from both U.S. and international government and academic sources (see individual cruise metadata records for source information) and consist of the raw (as collected) sonar data files. Datasets may also include processed or edited versions of the sonar data, ancillary data (i.e., sound velocity data), derived products (i.e., grids), and/or metadata for the data collection. The MBBDB provides data that span the globe and are discoverable and accessible via map interface or text-only search options. More information about the database can be foundhere.

This ArcGIS image service provides a color shaded relief visualization of gridded multibeam data from the entire archive. Each individual survey has been gridded at a 3 arc-second cell size (~100m), divided into 10-degree tiles, then organized into an ArcGIS mosaic dataset. "Overviews" are then built upon the underlying tiles to provide a seamless raster that combines all the surveys. Where surveys overlap, the mean depth value of the contributing surveys is used.

Source: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)

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Note: NCEI's archive typically contains the raw, unedited multibeam data provided by the data contributors. There are some erroneous depth values and/or data artifacts visible in this service. These data should not be used for navigational purposes.

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Seabed Mobility

The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors. The purpose of this project is to identify patterns in stress in order to inform habitat delineation or decisions for anthropogenic use of the continental shelf. The statistical characterization spans the continental shelf from the coast to approximately 120 m water depth, at approximately 5 km resolution. Time-series of wave and circulation are created using numerical models, and near-bottom output of steady and oscillatory velocities and an estimate of bottom roughness are used to calculate a time-series of bottom shear stress at 1-hour intervals. Statistical descriptions such as the median and 95th percentile, which are the output included with this database, are then calculated to create a two-dimensional picture of the regional patterns in shear stress. In addition, time-series of stress are compared to critical stress values at select points calculated from observed surface sediment texture data to determine estimates of sea floor mobility.

Source: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center; U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program; web services published by the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal

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This GIS layer contains an estimate of the percentage of time sediment is mobile at select points in the Middle Atlantic Bight. This output is based on numerical models of wave and circulation used to estimate bottom shear stress over an approximately one year time frame, which is subsequently compared to critical stress values estimated from observed surface sediment texture data. This data layer is primarily intended to show the overall distribution of sediment mobility on large spatial scales, and should be used qualitatively. Intended users include scientific researchers and the coastal and marine spatial planning community. This data layer is a subset of the U.S. Geological Survey Sea Floor Stress and Sediment Mobility database, and contains the percentage of time sediment is mobile at select points in the Middle Atlantic Bight.

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Seabed Shear Stress

The U.S. Geological Survey has been characterizing the regional variation in shear stress on the sea floor and sediment mobility through statistical descriptors. The purpose of this project is to identify patterns in stress in order to inform habitat delineation or decisions for anthropogenic use of the continental shelf. The statistical characterization spans the continental shelf from the coast to approximately 120 m water depth, at approximately 5 km resolution. Time-series of wave and circulation are created using numerical models, and near-bottom output of steady and oscillatory velocities and an estimate of bottom roughness are used to calculate a time-series of bottom shear stress at 1-hour intervals. Statistical descriptions such as the median and 95th percentile, which are the output included with this database, are then calculated to create a two-dimensional picture of the regional patterns in shear stress. In addition, time-series of stress are compared to critical stress values at select points calculated from observed surface sediment texture data to determine estimates of sea floor mobility.

Source: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center; U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program; web services published by the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal

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This GIS layer contains an estimate of the median of bottom shear stress for the Middle Atlantic Bight. This output is based on statistical characterization of numerical model estimates of wave and circulation patterns over an approximately one year time frame. This data layer is primarily intended to show the overall distribution of the average stress values on large spatial scales, and should be used qualitatively. Intended users include scientific researchers and the coastal and marine spatial planning community. This data layer is a subset of the U.S. Geological Survey Sea Floor Stress and Sediment Mobility database, and contains the median of bottom shear stress for the Middle Atlantic Bight.

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Soft Sediments (by grain size)

This layer classifies soft-sediments based on their grain size. Source data include USGS usSeabed: Atlantic coast offshore surficial sediment data (Data series 118, version 1.0) and the USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database (2005), Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center. Point-based data were interpolated using krigging tools to create this layer. Resulting values were classified based on grain-size according to the Wentworth (1922) scale. This classification process resulted in the following classes: clay (< 0.002 mmm), silt (0.024 – 0.06), very fine sand (0.06 – 0.125 mm), fine sand (0.125 – 0.25 mm), medium sand (0.25 – 0.5 mm), coarse sand (0.5 – 1.0 mm), very coarse sand (1 – 2 mm), and Gravel/granule (> 2 mm). Finally, point data was interpolated using kriging to create the resulting raster layer. The spatial resolution of this layer is 500 meters.

Source: USGS; analysis by TNC

Notes:

This dataset was created for the Northwest Atlantic Marine Ecoregional Assessment (NAMERA) in order to map soft sediments based on their grain size (in mm). This version (2) is an update of the original 2010 soft sediments layer using new data. THIS DATASET WAS NOT CREATED FOR NAVIGATIONAL PURPOSES AND AS SUCH SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR NAVIGATION.

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Seabed Forms

Seabed forms classify seafloor topography into discrete units. Derived from The Nature Conservancy's digital bathymetry, seabed forms can be described by a combination of just two variables: seabed position and slope. Seabed position (also referred to as topographic position or slope position) describes the topography of the area surrounding a particular cell. We based our seabed position calculations on Fels and Zobel's (1995) method, which evaluates the elevation differences between the model cell and the surrounding cells within a specified distance.

Source: NOAA; analysis by TNC

Notes:

This data product was created as part of the Northwest Atlantic Marine Ecoregional Assessment. The Nature Conservancy developed this science-based ecoregional assessment for the Northwest Atlantic Marine region (Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina). This assessment synthesizes information on oceanography, chemistry, geology, biology, and social science to inform decisions about coastal and marine ecosystems. The ten categories of targets identified as the primary structure for the marine ecoregional assessment are: coastal and estuarine habitats, benthic habitats, diadromous fish, demersal fish, pelagic fish, forage fish, nearshore shellfish, shorebirds and seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles.

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Acidification Monitoring Locations

This dataset depicts where monitoring of one or more parameters to measure ocean, coastal, and estuarine acidification is being conducted in the Mid-Atlantic. As there is no widely accepted method yet to measure acidification (Co3-2) directly, it is calculated from two of the four commonly measured parameters (pH, pCO2, dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] and total alkalinity [TA]) with known thermodynamic constants. The dataset comes from a variety of sources including state governments and academia whom measure acidification parameters. These data are meant to compile information about the sites that monitor acidification to assist in the development of a robust monitoring network in the Mid-Atlantic as per the goals of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Acidification Network (MACAN). This map does not compile the monitoring data itself, but does link to the monitoring data where possible. This map is regularly updated as additional information about monitoring sites continues to emerge and develop. If you have additional information that you think should be included in this map, please contact info@MidACAN.org.

This dataset was updated on the Portal viewer, February 12, 2019.

Source: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Acidification Network (MACAN)

Notes:

Some monitoring site point locations have multiple records in the dataset representing different sampling events occurring at the exact same location over multiple years, or even within the same year. These different sampling events sometimes also measured different parameters. The Portal map is not able to display the attributes of all the records at a single point location when a user clicks on a point to identify; it is only able to display the attributes of the first record it finds. The full dataset, including all records for each monitoring site point location, is available for download.

All Acidification Monitoring Sites / Acidification Monitoring Locations

Shows all acidification monitoring locations that are currently mapped. This dataset was updated on the Portal viewer, February 12, 2019.

Source: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Acidification Network (MACAN)

Notes:

Some monitoring site point locations have multiple records in the dataset representing different sampling events occurring at the exact same location over multiple years, or even within the same year. These different sampling events sometimes also measured different parameters. The Portal map is not able to display the attributes of all the records at a single point location when a user clicks on a point to identify; it is only able to display the attributes of the first record it finds. The full dataset, including all records for each monitoring site point location, is available for download.

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Currently Sampled Sites Only / Acidification Monitoring Locations

Shows only continuous monitoring sites and ongoing fixed stations. Cruise sample locations and former fixed stations are not shown. This dataset was updated on the Portal viewer, February 12, 2019.

Source: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Acidification Network (MACAN)

Notes:

Some monitoring site point locations have multiple records in the dataset representing different sampling events occurring at the exact same location over multiple years, or even within the same year. These different sampling events sometimes also measured different parameters. The Portal map is not able to display the attributes of all the records at a single point location when a user clicks on a point to identify; it is only able to display the attributes of the first record it finds. The full dataset, including all records for each monitoring site point location, is available for download.

View related studies via ESPIS

Sites by Number of Parameters / Acidification Monitoring Locations

Acidification monitoring sites by number of parameters measured. Possible parameters are pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and partial carbon dioxide (pCO2). This dataset was updated on the Portal viewer, February 12, 2019.

Source: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Acidification Network (MACAN)

Notes:

Some monitoring site point locations have multiple records in the dataset representing different sampling events occurring at the exact same location over multiple years, or even within the same year. These different sampling events sometimes also measured different parameters. The Portal map is not able to display the attributes of all the records at a single point location when a user clicks on a point to identify; it is only able to display the attributes of the first record it finds. The full dataset, including all records for each monitoring site point location, is available for download.

View related studies via ESPIS

pCO2 Sites / Acidification Monitoring Locations

Shows only sites where partial carbon dioxide (pCO2) is/was measured. This dataset was updated on the Portal viewer, February 12, 2019.

Source: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Acidification Network (MACAN)

Notes:

Some monitoring site point locations have multiple records in the dataset representing different sampling events occurring at the exact same location over multiple years, or even within the same year. These different sampling events sometimes also measured different parameters. The Portal map is not able to display the attributes of all the records at a single point location when a user clicks on a point to identify; it is only able to display the attributes of the first record it finds. The full dataset, including all records for each monitoring site point location, is available for download.

View related studies via ESPIS

TA Sites / Acidification Monitoring Locations

Shows only sites where total alkalinity (TA) is/was measured. This dataset was updated on the Portal viewer, February 12, 2019.

Source: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Acidification Network (MACAN)

Notes:

Some monitoring site point locations have multiple records in the dataset representing different sampling events occurring at the exact same location over multiple years, or even within the same year. These different sampling events sometimes also measured different parameters. The Portal map is not able to display the attributes of all the records at a single point location when a user clicks on a point to identify; it is only able to display the attributes of the first record it finds. The full dataset, including all records for each monitoring site point location, is available for download.

View related studies via ESPIS

DIC Sites / Acidification Monitoring Locations

Shows only sites where dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is/was measured. This dataset was updated on the Portal viewer, February 12, 2019.

Source: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Acidification Network (MACAN)

Notes:

Some monitoring site point locations have multiple records in the dataset representing different sampling events occurring at the exact same location over multiple years, or even within the same year. These different sampling events sometimes also measured different parameters. The Portal map is not able to display the attributes of all the records at a single point location when a user clicks on a point to identify; it is only able to display the attributes of the first record it finds. The full dataset, including all records for each monitoring site point location, is available for download.

View related studies via ESPIS

pH Sites / Acidification Monitoring Locations

Shows only sites where pH is/was measured. This dataset was updated on the Portal viewer, February 12, 2019.

Source: Mid-Atlantic Coastal Acidification Network (MACAN)

Notes:

Some monitoring site point locations have multiple records in the dataset representing different sampling events occurring at the exact same location over multiple years, or even within the same year. These different sampling events sometimes also measured different parameters. The Portal map is not able to display the attributes of all the records at a single point location when a user clicks on a point to identify; it is only able to display the attributes of the first record it finds. The full dataset, including all records for each monitoring site point location, is available for download.

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Submarine Canyons

This data layer represents major canyons of the Mid-Atlantic Coast. Approximate boundaries were digitized on-screen over a raster bathymetry layer. Canyon names come from NOAA charts and other various sources. These boundaries were created primarily for cartographic purposes and do not represent ecological boundaries. There are many submarine canyons in addition to those included here – this layer was created in an attempt to show the “major” canyons on maps.

Source: The Nature Conservancy

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Sea Surface Temperature Latest

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Surface Currents 6 km latest

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Surface Currents Monthly Avg 6km

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Sea Surface Temperature

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MARACOOS Sea Surface Temperature (SST) monthly slider

This layer shows monthly average sea surface temperatures (SST) based on all available 1-day composite data collected by NASA’s MODIS Aqua satellite from 2003-2017. Because optical products are not normally distributed, they were first Log10 transformed, then averaged, then back transformed to represent the mean. SST calculation was performed by SeaDas and regridded to Mercator lon/lat projection.

Processed at the University of Delaware. Computed for the Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System.

Source: Processed at the University of Delaware; Computed for the Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System

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MARACOOS SST 8 day latest

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MARACOOS SST 8 day anomaly latest

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MARACOOS current test

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